Despite the fact that the U.S. gives $1.3 billion in military aid to Egypt each year, Egyptian prosecutors will bring criminal charges against 19 Americans for working in NGOs. The Americans work for the International Republican Institute and the National Democratic Institute in Cairo, which offer training for prospective Egyptian politicians. Egyptian prosecutors accuse the NGOs of operating in Egypt without a license, but the NGOs have stated that Egypt has ignored applications for the necessary licenses. U.S. congressmen introduced a new law in December which will require Secretary of State Hilary Clinton to certify that Egypt has met minimum standards of human rights. It seems likely that this move by Egyptian prosecutors may fail to pass muster.